Vehicles Plant (ZVM)
Photo by the author
Uazik on the tracks? Wow Well! In fact, Uhtysh - is a river in the Nizhny Novgorod region. A terrain vehicle of the same name built in Nizhny Novgorod at the factory all-terrain vehicles.
In creating this machine was attended by specialists of the Nizhny Novgorod Technical University and the Research Institute of Transport and Mechanical Engineering Technology - companies with names and traditions. And forget about Ulyanovsk worthless - His Majesty Goat forms the basis of a visual image of the Nizhny Novgorod terrain vehicle. Generally, "tracked UAZ" - this is the rare case where the symbiosis of "base" and "superstructure" does not hurt the eye and causes no contradictions: Uhtysh turned out fun!
Body Ulyanovsk SUV, cut along the line of fracture doorways, installed on a sealed steel casing, which houses the transmission assemblies and chassis components. Each side of the vehicle bears the two sprockets (front and rear idler drive wheel), six road wheels with torsion bar suspension and three support rollers. Caterpillars Uhtysha are patterned rubber tape units which are connected to each other by special hinges. Finger-joint connecting tracks, the tape does not interfere with work and the periphery of the crawler freely "wound" on the sprocket, but prevents a reverse deflection tracks - impact point on the part of the bearing surface thus perceives no particular link, and tracked web site. As a result, a so-called "effect of the board", reducing ground pressure and allowing the car to move confidently on non-cohesive surfaces: sand, snow and swamp. Evenly distribute the weight of the all-terrain vehicle across the contact patch to help and special expanders - rubber rectangular fingers sticking out of each truck. When driving on Carr additional "raspaltsovka" allows confidence to cling to the ground, and the floating rubber "fingers" are transformed into paddles.
In efforts on arms control wheel Uhtysha comparable to a computer joystick - you can drive a car with two fingers
Yes, Uhtysh floats! So far, however, like a dog, but all chances to become a real amphibian machine has: the developers seriously puzzled by installing additional water jets, especially since there is no contraindications - tracked Kozel was originally designed for dwelling in two verses. By the way, providing adequate "seaworthy" and dictated some seemingly paradoxical design solutions. The lower section of the tailgate Uhtysha, for example, heat sealing tightly (at UAZ it opens), which creates some problems with loading luggage. But gathering afloat and out of the water on the shore of an airtight board will not allow poop. High fuel tanks battened neck and truncated "loopholes" doorways too inconvenient, but it is, again, the cost of construction of waterfowl. The only unforgivable "gaffe" - the location of the exhaust pipe when climbs on the front passenger seat for her and wants to grab his hand. And you can not ...
When we take away to the front passenger seat, right-hand man, and so strive to grab a hot exhaust pipe
What is inside? Yes, ordinary, cute heart UAZ! Get used to have a "horned" helm, installed instead of the usual bagels, and the absence of a brake pedal, which functions are assigned to the pivoting arms. Steering column itself is made in the form of a T-shaped console, and short "horns" control when cornering friction clutches need to pull over. Driving is comfortable, but in terms of ergonomics, the console should make shorter - so it will be less strain on the muscles of the forearm. The rest of the driver's workplace, and the interior in general, it is responsible Machine ideology. Soft chairs, big windows with sliding window, decent visibility ... It is also important that migrated tracked all-terrain vehicle, interior Ulyanovsk "goat" has not lost the ability to transform - in, you can quickly organize two comfortable beds. And how it is warm! With powerful uazovsky "stove" interior warms up instantly, and Displacement body cavity, through which the blown hot air from the engine compartment, is such a powerful source of "underground" heat that winter in the car, you can sit in a T-shirt and slippers. Few places in the trunk? If we argue from a position of geologists, oilmen and members of extreme expeditions, this is indeed the case. However Uhtysh - is not technology and not the carrier transporter of industrial goods. Take on board gear and provisions necessary for the weekly "avtonomki" four or five hunters, he is able to, but if baggage is not a burden, even seven people can be accommodated in the cabin. In short, Uhtysh is strictly "civilian" special terrain vehicle light class with the corresponding installed power.
Under the hood is installed carburetor engine UMZ-4218-10 (these engines put on the classic "goats" and "loaf"), working with a four-speed transmission and transfer case Ulyanovsk production. It stipulates that the word "razdatka" in this case should not be taken literally, since the transmission Uhtysha this unit gives nothing, and acts as a shift stage - more two-stage gearbox. From it comes to torque main transmission with clutch and band brake (Nizhny Novgorod use modernized assembly from the crawler transporter GAZ-71), and then is distributed to the drive shaft final drives and drive sprockets.
Tighteners on front tracks are located under the bottom of the machine
Mechanical losses in the drive train of a tracked vehicle is very high, so that archaic Ulyanovsk motor have hard times. However, two and a half tons of "iron" it spends on the road with confidence, and at the time of gear change is even praise. The fact that due to the high resistance to movement and a significant braking torque transmission from running off-road tracked vehicle stops even when momentary power discontinuity (when the clutch is inevitably cutoffs). Switch "up" accounts for a very fast, a little "singeing" grip and relying on the traction motor characteristics. Ulyanovsk motor load under such force. The only thing he stubbornly refuses to do is to develop momentum. Steep'd better have made it possible to dial in an emergency move, look - and "jump" to the lifts could be the first time!
Compressed air management system generates a compressor on the PAZ bus.
Dispensing valves - from armored personnel carriers
Turns Uhtysh as classic tracked carrier - troll beads. Opening the clutch using the lever, the wheel and tightening the band brake, the driver makes one of the tracks run ahead and deploy machine. Highlight of the construction is that the drive mechanism is a pneumatic rotation. On the right side of the engine installed mechanical compressor of bus PAZ, forcing air into the receiver and operates actuators. When exposed to one of the "horns" hand wheel opens the dispensing valve, which "flips" the pressure in the relevant highway: the clutch is opened, the brake is delayed - and steering gear fulfills the command. Advantages of pneumatic feel at the first maneuver: efforts on the handles are so small that you can operate the machine literally two fingers - for crawler transporter is a huge plus.
Disadvantages pnevmorulya "get out" later, when, rewind a few kilometers along the woodland, you know that is not controlled by the machine, and adapts to its behavior. The reason for that - the lack of tracking action in the actuator and the complete absence of feedback. The algorithm by which pneumatic Uhtysha "bites" caterpillar resembles a computer program running on the hard logical conditions of "yes / no": hardly touched the handle - and brake grip animal bites into the drum, tightly clutching the side. ATV immediately twisted around the vertical axis, and calculate the angle of rotation is not possible - it is necessary to guess. Not dovernul - pull lever a second time, overdone - fix your opposite side and again hope for good luck. Minimize job stubborn helm and rid yourself of tiresome podrulivany possible only if you learn to look at polmanevra forward and break the arc turns to the broken line. Expressed in the language of the rally, pull the lever must be strictly in the "apex", immediately put the car "nose" to target the next turn and move straight to it without touching the lever - otherwise the ride turns into a dashing from side to side. Problems handling their offspring know Nizhny Novgorod and in the near future promise to give the pneumatic booster adequate action followed. Moments opening board clutch and braking tracks are separated in time, and the brake itself to learn to work smoothly, without Instant "biting" to the gentle bends in the car could "fulfill the circulation," an arc of large radius.
L-shaped bracket serves as an ice ax, downloading frost with wheel-sloth
I was surprised that in the snow Uhtysh leaves behind quite a deep rut and early selects 400 mm of ground clearance. If the declared manufacturer specific ground pressure (0,125 kg / cm 2) is true, then the virgin machine should move confidently. However, this is only a first impression: Need to correct conclusions comparative tests with other all-terrain vehicles equipped with one-way tracks rezinometalicheskimi stiffness. And snow snow strife - the success of the movement depends on the virgin snow on a number of factors. You can not ignore the fact that the current tracks Uhtysha in some way are a compromise. On the one hand, they are "environmentally friendly" and The rubber (flat sheet does not tear the top layer of the soil and does not destroy the coating of public roads), on the other - "toothless". The absence of lugs does not allow the car confidently cling to the bearing surface on the rise, at the exit from the water to the shore, and the storming of the steep ledges. Of course, the universal mover, work equally well in a variety of off-road, there is in principle. However, the creators Uhtysha worth experimenting. Perhaps, for more reliable movement through deep snow rubber-band is to do a little wider?
But the chassis of the Nizhny Novgorod Machine - example of proper engineering design and sophisticated design. It would seem, torsion bar suspension, SWB, high body, the caterpillar - Now he begins to shake the soul ... Nothing of the sort! On the road and off-road bumps Uhtysh shows a very decent smoothness without forcing riders to grab the handle of the saving and handrails. Very comfortable chassis! Thanks to energy-intensive suspension and absence of the effect of "Roly-Poly" the machine is not afraid of strong banks and, more importantly, allows you to feel relief - when driving on a heavy off-road quality is often a determining factor.
Price 800 thousand rubles for Uhtysh as standard, imagine not deterred - tracked vehicles is expensive. But domestic aggregate basis and a minimum of exotic knots in this case, plus more: it means that in addition to the rover will not have to "buy" a qualified mechanic and wait months for delivery deficient "piece of iron" - for people in remote areas is very important. As for the "childhood diseases", for their treatment in Nizhny Novgorod have all the intellectual resources. Financial, hopefully, there will be too.
|Specifications (manufacturer's data) *|
|Ground clearance, mm||400|
|Curb weight, kg||2300|
|Gross weight, kg||2800|
|Additional transmission||mechanical, 2-speed|
|Swinging mechanism||dry friction clutch with a band brake and pneumatic|
|Suspension||independent torsion bar, with shock absorbers front and rear balancers|
|The width of the tracks with expanders, mm||400|
|Maximum speed km/h|
|on a hard surface||70|