Text: Andrew Sudbin
Photo: Andrew Sudbin

Время кентавров

Time centaurs

But tell me, fans of four-wheel drive and off-road enthusiasts, tell me honestly, how many times you are in the hearts cried out: "To drive here, you need a tracked all-terrain vehicle!". Indeed, no matter how much your favorite Elevator UAZ or Land Cruiser, which wheels or screwed anyway the car can not be compared on the terrain with the banal tractors DT-75, not to mention the prime mover.

No, whatever you say, and any wheeled ATVs are designed for driving on the roads, even very bad. Track the car, on the contrary, constantly lay under his own track rollers roadbed, which makes it a real all-terrain vehicle, capable to overcome the muddy plowed field and a peat bog and deep, waist deep snow, and rocky ford. So why all who need to travel to distant places, not bought myself crawler tractors? Fortunately in the Soviet Union were done quite a lot, and buy some GAZ-71, decommissioned from military service, it is quite inexpensive? But the fact that the purchased tracked vehicle is necessary also to operate. And here there is a lot of problems. Not only that, cross-country vehicles with caterpillars of the traditional type, consisting of a steel shoe, strictly ordered entry into the asphalt (we all remember what was done to the streets of Moscow Kantemir and Taman divisions tank tracks in 1991 and 1993). So also very operational tracked vehicle costing many times more expensive than the wheel. And she drinks the fuel barrels, and manage it is not easy, and no comfort. There are, of course, these "animals" as "Beaver" or Swedish Hagglunds Bv-206. But they are still too big. Buy yourself a private use - the same as buy bus. Now, if to take a regular SUV, but put it on crawler ... But that's impossible!

I myself sincerely thought so, until I saw the exhibition equipment intended for the oil industry and the gasman not that other, as the most common tilt UAZ ... Only instead of wheels the machine firmly relied on the caterpillar. It turned out that the machine is called "Uhtysh" and that made the centaur in the city Zavolzhe that near Nizhny Novgorod, but not Zavolzhsky crawler tractors, which are made of GAZ-34039 and "Beaver", and on a young company called "Plant-terrain vehicles ". Curb weight "Uhtysha" - two tons, dimensions - like a normal UAZ and rubber tracks allow operation on the pavement. In short, just what we need! And how many cars it made? Only one? Probably, and ride on it while it is impossible?

My second meeting with "Uhtyshem" took place at the entrance to the track, which tested all the trans-Volga tracked ATVs. Carefully climb round the car, I realized that "Uhtysh" - it does not UAZ on tracks. Before me stood the original machine, which is used in the construction of some units Ulyanovsk and body panels. Base construction - steel "boat", which is mounted petrol engine UMZ-421, a common four-speed transmission, transfer case and final drive housing gear Ulyanovsk bridge with the corresponding main pair. But further into the mechanics begin differences. Between the main gearbox and final drives are friction clutches, which are multi-disc clutch. Part disc is in engagement with the drive shaft, and is transmitted to the driven wheels associated with the drum. This is a drum brake band. Turning to the side, you turn off the clutch lagging side, it is no longer transmitted torque, is completely going to run up the side. A trailing overboard you brake band brake. Ideally - depending on the force applied to the steering wheel. The larger the braking torque, the smaller turning radius. Sam has a clutch turning radius, around the tracks. All other radii are selected by braking. In fact, today onboard friction - it is an anachronism, its replacing hydrostatic turning mechanism. But frictions are cheap and reliable. And because the task of the creators of "Uhtysha" was put on the market a simple and cheap to operate all-terrain vehicle, then these units were used.

«Ухтыш» – вполне динамичная машина, способная мчаться по пересеченной местности со скоростью до 70 км/чаc.

"Uhtysh" - it is a dynamic car capable of racing on rough terrain at speeds up to 70 km / H.

Caterpillar has a rear-drive sprocket (Front is sloth. Serves to track tension), six road wheels with torsion bar suspension lever-and three support rollers. Sami Rollers - Tandem (between the ridges are the guide vanes caterpillars), aluminum, with rubber tires. The front pair of rollers equipped with shock absorbers. Designers are very proud of the fact that the rollers, they made themselves, on the same technology as the rubber-coated rollers of combat tracked vehicles. Sami caterpillars at first glance very similar to a caterpillar "Beaver", but it is only at first glance. "Beaver" is the caterpillars, consisting of metal trucks, each of which is attached a metal shoe. The main idea of ​​the new tracks - the presence of a hard guide vanes, which provides, inter alia, propeller and stiffness caterpillars, ie stiffness in the direction parallel to the axis of the machine. This lack of rigidity is due to propeller propensity "Beaver" take off one's shoes at every opportunity. At the same time this device provides the inverse stiffness. To ensure the necessary width and engagement with the ground on the caterpillar mounted elastic expanders. When driving on hard ground, they do not touch the surface. Expanders could be tough, but in this version, they will not break when hit by obstacles. The idea of ​​a caterpillar with removable expanders is not new, the Germans put them further PzKf VI Pantera, but there they were tough and desperately broke. Caterpillar "Uhtysha" - a conglomeration of all laboratory developments in recent years. Firstly, the rubber mount (RLL) used to connect two adjacent tracks. This, on the one hand eliminates friction against metal pin and track link wear in place of the compound. Each truck is equipped with two fingers. The fingers of the two trucks are connected bobbin, to which are attached expanders. Actually RLL - this is not news, track design most of our tanks is based on the RLL. But the tracks of tanks forged, machined flange and holes for the fingers. Caterpillar "Uhtysha" was a very technological. Two conventional welded tube plate, which is welded tselnoshtampovannyh crest, and the whole structure bake in the rubber-cord shell. This provides a rubber running track, to which no freezes ice and snow (the problem characteristic of track-metal), as well as The rubber.

Водители гусеничных вездеходов не знают, что такое «диагональное вывешивание».

Drivers of tracked vehicles do not know what a "diagonal display."

The internal arrangement of the caterpillar "Uhtysha" completely different from the interior of the ordinary "commander" UAZ, except that instead of the steering wheel installed by the WHEEL machine tool, and to the left of the steering wheel is a pressure gauge indicating the pressure in the pneumatic line ... The fact that the friction clutches are controlled pneumatically. Turned left WHEEL - included air valve, disconnect the wheels of the left clutch and band brake has engaged the left drum, turned to the right - the same thing happens on the right side of the transmission.

На плаву «Ухтыш» управляется не слишком хорошо, но все же уверенно движется вперед со скоростью пешехода.

Afloat "Uhtysh" controlled not too good, but it is steadily moving forward at a walking pace.

But enough of the technical details, it's time to try what 'Uhtysh "on the go! I open the trimmed on the upper hinge uazovsky door and climb into the driver's seat. Yes, now it is clear why the wheel is replaced by a tiny WHEEL. Perhaps bear the steering wheel of normal size, I would simply could not squeeze past him, as well - not too comfortable, but it is possible. I turn the key for a few seconds listening as squeals starter motor, and push to the floor, "spoon" the gas pedal. Ulyanovsk three-liter "four" sneezes, spits out a cloud of blue smoke, and finally begins to work smoothly and rhythmically. "Touched with the second" - he advises sitting next to Sergei, a professional test driver. Crunch transmission stuck like - let's go! Immediately I understand that some automobile skills to be left behind. The fact that the experimental machine installed compressor and pneumatic valve from the Pavlovsk bus and clutch control is on an "all or nothing". So the angle at which the car is turning, not defined by the angle of the steering wheel, and the time for which you have opened the right or left valve. Careless, he held the helm in the tilted position at the second extra, and one caterpillar completely inhibited, and the car rushes to the side with the path on which you want to send it. You instinctively reset the gas and feverishly twist the WHEEL in the opposite direction, and had time to move the car to lose ... it rushes to the opposite ditch. In order to adapt to the management, it took me ten minutes. Yes, it is somewhat longer than the time that is needed in order to familiarize yourself with extremely simple controls Swedish Bv-206, but significantly less than is required to penetrate the secrets of handling arms "Beaver". But getting used to, you can turn on and the third and fourth gear.

Каждый, кто пробовал управлять гусеничной техникой, знает, как быстро к тебе приходит восхитительное чувство вседозволенности.

Anyone who has tried to control the tracked vehicles, knows
how quickly you come to a delightful sense of permissiveness.

The speedometer needle dances between markers 40 and 50 and, according to subjective feelings, do not lie. I'm boldly throw the car into the assault mounds, ditches and wetlands landfill. "Uhtysh" clever this literally does everything himself. By the way, squinting, I found that the transfer box lever is in the "reduced transmission enabled" position. I asked Sergei - and what will happen if we include direct? In response, he only laughed: "This is not reduced, but increased transmission." It appears, from theoretical considerations would be optimal to have a pair of main transmission ratio less than 1: 2 and a side gear ratio of about 1: 2.5. But in order to use standard uazovsky gear with a ratio of 1: 2.77 and serial on-board gear with a ratio of 1: 3.18 (the same gear used in the "Beaver"), the designers needed to alter the transfer case in such a way that the reduction gear began to rise, with an attitude 1: 0.51. The direct transmission of playing in "Uhtyshe 'role reduced, so we never once turned on. Not needed.

Периодически радиатор «Ухтыша» вскипает, как самовар, но конструкторы обещают, что на серийных машинах эта проблема будет решена.

Periodically the radiator "Uhtysha" effervescence like the samovar, but the designers promise
that this problem will be solved in the production machines.

Sergei offers: "Well, let's go to the Volga? There and ride and swim "... By the way, I very positively assess the suspension" Uhtysha ". In his expeditionary combat youth I had to travel a lot on tracked vehicles, and almost all of them suffer pitching. You drive like on a flat road, and shakes you like to launch a five-point storm: up and down, up and down, from the nose to the stern. "Uhtysh" doing nothing of the sort. Pitching begins only when the road itself is an alternation of hillocks and valleys and the suspension is in resonance. And suspension "Uhtysha" differs excellent energy consumption. By car, use a batch of four torsion bars. They are easier and processability than zanevolennye odnoprutkovye torsion bars, places very high demands on steel quality and setting. Here we rush on the floodplain swamp. Suddenly, right in front there is a fairly deep ditch, hidden until then thickets of sedges. I firmly seizes WHEEL expecting a serious blow, and press on the brake. But the blow is quite tolerable. Actually, the gas could not slow down. Sergei laughs: "More gas, less pits ..." The only thing that spoils the life is that the arrow showing the coolant temperature, periodically suggests to us that the engine is about to boil or already boiled. The fact that the hot air is not ejected from the engine under the bottom, as in conventional cars, and passes under floors of the passenger compartment along the "boat" and goes through several narrow slots in the rear side. On the experimental machine, these cracks have turned slightly less than you need. We have to open the hatch in the floor of the luggage compartment, leading to the transmission compartment. To some extent, this solves the problem, but the noise level in the cabin becomes thus, have to shout. "Uhtysh" - generally quite a noisy vehicle. But the creators of the machine assure that already figured out how to deal with the overheating and drastically improved sound insulation. Actually, on the prototype, which is a suspension stand for testing characteristics of the suspension, powertrain and testing caterpillar design, these issues simply were not engaged.

От обычного УАЗа интерьер «Ухтыша» отличается только крохотным штурвальчиком, заменившим обычную «баранку», да расположенным слева от руля указателем давления воздуха в пневмосистеме.

From the usual interior UAZ "Uhtysha" differs only in tiny WHEEL,
replace conventional "steering wheel", so the left of the steering indicator
air pressure in the pneumatic system.

The way we partition off a fairly wide channel. Well, turn around? "Why, sailed!" - Commanded by Sergey. Oh yeah, he's still floating! After all, the "Beaver" and "Uhtysh" grew out of the same prototype all-terrain vehicle that was created in the laboratory of all-terrain vehicles GUI. Gently drop my wide nose of the car into the water - and here we are sailing. That's just not clear where, as all the windows immediately fogged. I wipe the glass and see what sailing we do not go where I want. I turn the wheel by blocking a caterpillar, but almost nothing has changed - it seems that "Uhtysh" absolutely not going anywhere to turn. "Turn on the fourth floor, and gas" - advises Sergey. Water under the fenders on one side boils, and "Uhtysh" impressively begins to pick up in the right direction. That's good, now we are focused perpendicular to the coast. Now let rowing both tracks. I wonder how we get out here - Beach a pretty cool ... and no problems. At some point I feel that the caterpillars caught in the bottom, immediately again includes a second gear on the second wide uazovsky hood obscures the sky, then gently lowered - and we on the other side. After bathing, it turns out that "Uhtysh" virtually ceased to obey the helm. "The usual thing, cherpanuli water in the boat, that's clutches and ceased to operate normally, - Sergey comfort me and Alex. - Now merge the water, and everything will be fine again. " Here, by the way, it turns out that the drain plug to "Uhtyshe" is not very good, at the bottom under the engine. As a result, first we have to crawl under the car with a wrench, and then look for a position that most of the water still poured. In all production machines will be a lot easier, because, firstly, to change the location of Kingston jams, and, second, all-terrain vehicle equipment replenish bilge pump. In addition, there should be an automatic valve, which does not give the water poured into the engine compartment when entering the water. And yet I would not have dared to cross it river with rapid current. speed is too low melt by scrolling track, too bad the car is driven in the water. However, there is an old proven way to expedition - to hang on the tailgate outboard motor, for example, "breeze". And the speed will increase to 3-4 kilometers per hour to 10-12, and manageability will appear.

Карбюраторный УМЗ-421 объемом 2.9 литра неплохо справляется со своими обязанностями, но все же дизель был бы лучше.

Carburetor UMP-421 volume of 2.9 liters copes with its responsibilities, yet diesel would be better.

Главная причина перегрева – слишком маленькие щели для отвода горячего воздуха в полом заднем борту.

The main cause of overheating - too small slit to drain the hot air in the rear floor board.

Расположенная над глушителем заливная горловина бензобака – не лучшее решение с точки зрения безопасности.

Located above the silencer Fuel tank filler neck - not the best solution in terms of safety.

Поворот штурвальчика открывает и закрывает клапана пневмосистемы, управляющей фрикционами.

WHEEL Turn the valve opens and closes the pneumatic system, clutch control.

Давление в пневмосистеме создает компрессор от павловского автобуса.

The pressure in the pneumatic system makes the compressor from Pavlovian bus.

В конструкции «Ухтыша» использовано множество деталей от серийных машин. Например, ступица ленивца позаимствована у «Москвича».

In "Uhtysha" design used many details from the mass-produced cars.
For example, the hub sloth borrowed from the "Moskvich".

Торсионная подвеска позволяет относительно мягко проходить даже серьезные препятствия.

Torsion suspension allows relatively gently held even serious obstacles.

Enough to roll on the sands and marshes in the floodplain of the Volga, back to the base, and I quote in the order of their impressions. To say that I liked the machine, then do not say anything. I am confident that the demand for it will be, and even what. Especially if you replace the carburetor engine to a decent diesel. And in turn, line up, and private customers who wish to have a true all-terrain vehicle for trips to the hunting and fishing, and oil, and foresters, and security forces. Who showed interest in the car and FEMA, and border guards. In short, the work for the "Uhtysha" there where you need to overcome the present lack of roads, and do not need to carry large loads. So far, only the bonnet will be an option, but with the body traced version of the "loaf". As for the units, then on "Uhtysh" you can put any of the range of engines motors used at UAZ. It is expected that "Uhtysh" will cost half the price than the "Beaver", and many times cheaper than the GAZ-34039 or used Bv-206. Noticeably less will operate. In Bv-206 tape is one worth $ 3,000, and all tapes - 4. And if you pass by the obstacles that tear tape, you have to buy a new caterpillar. Caterpillar "Uhtysha" worth no more than $ 1,500, and in the worst case, you will need to replace a couple of trucks of 500 rubles apiece. Incidentally, the manufacturers guarantee caterpillar resource of 8,000 km, but according to their own estimates, actual mileage will be at least 30 thousand kilometers. Expanders Caterpillar track holds at least 300 kilograms and is lost more often than not due to the rupture of the rubber, but because of the departure of the locking pin. But even if we lose all expanders, the machine still does not lose its ability to move.

Двери подрезаны под верхнюю петлю, а от контакта с глушителем при посадке защищает проволочное ограждение.

Doors are clipped under the upper loop, and from contact with the muffler when planting protects the wire fence.

Главный редуктор взят от военного моста УАЗа, фрикцион и бортовые редуктора – оригинальные.

Main gearbox taken from the bridge of the military UAZ, clutch and gear on board - original.

Каждый трак гусеницы представляет собой резиновый кирпич, в который залит металлический каркас, два соединительных пальца и штампованный гребень направляющего аппарата.

Each caterpillar track is a rubber brick, which is filled with a metal frame,
two connecting finger and pressed the comb guide vanes.

In general, it is felt that a huge interest in the car. As we rode in the floodplain of the Volga, to us twice approached and offered to sell the car. Well, in the "Plant-terrain vehicles" are accustomed to such requests, and invites all to wait until February. In the meantime ... Can I, in the end, the dream? For example, about how great it would be to get a car in the carpark and the editorial did not hesitate to get her to the most remote areas on the slopes of the trophy-raids. And why, in fact, not? Dreams so good that sometimes have to come true.

Background "Uhtysha".

Lightly ATVs in Nizhny Novgorod, engaged since the late 40s of the last century. Particularly active this theme was developed in the mid 60s. Even then, many businesses were needed machines that can replace a snowmobile "Buran", inexpensive to maintain, and quite comfortable. Then, at the Institute of Transport Engineering and the Gorky Polytechnic Institute was established laboratory all-terrain vehicles. The backbone of the laboratory amounted to teachers of the department of all-terrain vehicles. In the laboratory, were not only tracked vehicles. There were developed and wheeled vehicles, and shnekohody and motonarty (by the way, motonarty GPI-1910 was the closest to mass production, but did not find the plant that can master this technique). Notorious snowmobile "Buran" was also developed in this laboratory. There were also projects of military subjects, and engineering projects for the oil industry.

ГПИ-22, 1947 г., агрегаты ГАЗ-АА.

GPI-22, 1947 units of GAZ-AA.

С-ГПИ-19, 1960 г., агрегаты ЗАЗ-966.

C-GUI-19, 1960 units of ZAZ-966.

С-ГПИ-17, 1965 г., агрегаты МЗМА-403.

C-GUI-17, 1965 units MZMA-403.

С-ГПИ-37, 1968 г., агрегаты ГАЗ-24.

C-37 GPI-1968, GAZ-24 units.